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This blog takes you behind the scenes of the State Historical Society of North Dakota. Get a glimpse at a day-in-the-life of the staff, volunteers, and partners who make it all possible. Discover what it takes to preserve North Dakota’s natural and cultural history. We encourage dialogue, questions, and comments!

Meagan Schoenfelder's blog

Adventures in Archaeology Collections: Fort Berthold I

In the archaeology lab, we’ve recently had a lot of bags, boxes, and artifacts on the tables. These artifacts are from the site of the first Fort Berthold (32ML2, Fort Berthold I).

Fort Berthold I was a trading post located on the north side of Like-A-Fishhook Village (for more on Like-A-Fishhook, see previous posts at blog.statemuseum.nd.gov/blog/adventures-archaeology-collections-fishhook-village and blog.statemuseum.nd.gov/blog/adventures-archaeology-collections-fishhook-village-part-ii). This trading post was built around 1845 and was used until the early 1860s. This site, like the adjacent village of Like-A-Fishhook, was flooded by the Garrison Dam and was partially excavated by archaeologists in the 1950s as part of the River Basin Surveys. The site is now under Lake Sakakawea.

David Nix, one of our volunteers, has just finished photographing more than 1,700 artifacts from Fort Berthold I. We are now busy working with other volunteers (special thanks to Sandra, Mavis, Mary, and Gary) to transfer the artifacts from brown paper bags and bubble wrap into acid-free, archival storage materials.

Sorting artifacts

Work in progress: sorting artifacts out of old non-archival storage materials

Repackaged boxes of artifacts

Repackaged boxes of artifacts

It is exciting to see some artifacts that are not common in the archaeology collections. North Dakota does not have a climate that preserves materials like plants, wood, or leather very well. But a few of those materials do survive in this collection!

There are shoes, shoes, and more shoes—as well as boots and overshoes—in parts, pieces, and even nearly complete examples. They come in many different shapes and sizes.

Footwear from Fort Berthold I

A small selection of the footwear from Fort Berthold I (12711.3, 1285, 1345-1346, 1427, 1745-1746, &1828, photos by David Nix– edited SHSND)

It is far more normal to see belt buckles by themselves in North Dakota’s archaeology collections than buckles with leather belts still attached.

Metal buckle

Metal buckles are not uncommon in the archaeology collections, though not all are as fancy as this military buckle plate (12711.1541, photo by David Nix– edited SHSND)

Buckle with leather belt

A buckle with part of the leather belt still attached (12711.836, photo by David Nix– edited SHSND)

Two felt caps with decorative fringe are really interesting.

Felt caps

Felt caps (12711.251 & 761, photos by David Nix – edited SHSND)

A carefully braided fragment of delicate sweetgrass is also in the collection.

Braided sweetgrass

Braided sweetgrass (12711.612)

Here is part of a sewn birch bark object—you can see the holes where this piece was stitched.

Sewn birch bark

Sewn birch bark (12711.1366, photo by David Nix– edited SHSND)

There are other canteen stoppers in the archaeology collections, but this is the first canteen stopper that I have seen with the cork still attached.

Canteen cork and Canteen

A canteen cork (12711.152, photo by David Nix– edited SHSND)

Less fragile, but not less interesting, is a flute made from a gun barrel. This is one of my favorite objects from Fort Berthold I. I wonder who made this and what kind of story is behind it. There is no mouth piece with it now. Did it ever have one? Was this a toy or a real instrument? If it was a real instrument, what did it sound like?

Gun barrel flute

Gun barrel flute (12711.300)

Adventures in Archaeology Collections: Parts & Pieces

What do you see in this photo? (click photo to see larger image)

Miscellaneous Metal

Objects from a bag originally labelled “miscellaneous metal” (former 2010.99.3029

On the surface, it is a random pile of metal. But these aren’t just miscellaneous items, even though the bag they were stored in was originally labeled “miscellaneous metal”! They are artifacts that add to the story of a site. They are evidence of the things people used and the activities in which they participated. These are objects that were utilized, stored, discarded, lost, or left by people who lived at, worked at, or passed through Fort Rice (32MO102).

Part of the fun in sorting a bag of small parts and pieces is figuring out what they are—discovering that the pieces are part of something. Let’s take a closer look at a few of the items in that pile.

This plain-looking piece of metal is a tobacco twist or plug tag.

Tobacco twist tag

The artifact: a tobacco twist tag (2010.99.7493)

Both tobacco plugs and twists were used for pipe smoking or as chewing tobacco. Tobacco twists are formed by rolling and twisting tobacco leaves into a tight rope-like form. Cut blocks of pressed tobacco are called plugs. The tags were attached to the twists by a long prong while plug tags were attached with two short prongs. The tags were used to identify the tobacco brand. Any trace of a logo or decoration has worn off of this tag. Most tobacco tags were colorful like this more intact example from the site of Fort Berthold I.

Tobacco twist tag

An example: a tobacco twist tag from Fort Berthold I fort site (12711.144)

Some artifacts are only small parts of a larger object—like this item. It is a bolster (an end piece) from a pocket knife.

Pocket knife bolster

The part: a pocket knife bolster (2010.99.7477)

Pocket knives

Examples: almost complete pocket knives from Fort Rice. See where the bolsters fit? (2010.99.6179 & 2010.99.6187, photos by Doug Wurtz & David Nix – edited SHSND)

These odd looking fragments are pieces of friction primers used to ignite the gun powder in artillery.

Friction primer fragments

Parts: friction primer fragments (2010.99.7480, photo by Doug Wurtz – edited SHSND)

Friction primers

Examples: more complete friction primers also from Fort Rice (1987.85.98-99)

These are pieces of military insignia. There are at least three different types of hat insignia and what appears to be part of a regiment number or company letter in this group.

Military insignia fragments

Parts: military insignia fragments (2010.99.7487)

Cavalry hat insignia

Example: a complete cavalry hat insignia for an enlisted man, from Fort Rice (12003.2445, photo by Doug Wurtz – edited SHSND)

Model 1858 dress hat pin

Example: a Model 1858 dress hat (Hardee hat) pin from Fort Rice (2010.99.6132, photo by Doug Wurtz – edited SHSND)

Cavalry dress helmet insignia

Example: an enlisted man’s cavalry dress helmet insignia from Fort Rice (2010.99.6144, photo by Doug Wurtz –edited SHSND)

This is part of a shoulder scale turnkey or button base.

Button or turnkey base from shoulder scale

The part: a button or turnkey base from a shoulder scale (2010.99.7488)

Shoulder scales (a type of epaulet sometimes called brass scales, or metallic scales) were used as part of military uniform and were worn on the shoulders. The turnkey helped attach the main part of the shoulder scale to the rest of the uniform. Shoulder scales are made from many distinct pieces.

Turnkey or button from shoulder scale

Example: a complete turnkey or button from a shoulder scale from Fort Rice (2010.99.3493)

Attachment parts for shoulder scale

Example: attachment parts for a shoulder scale, right- the attachment pieces, middle - how the attachment pieces fit together, right – how the turnkey looks when fit attached to the complete shoulder scale (all pieces from Fort Rice)

Of course there are many other items visible in the first photo. Other artifacts so far identified in this group of objects include pieces of lead shot, a thumb tack, buckles, buttons, pencil leads, rivets, bell fragments, pocket watch parts, and even part of an earring! Two non-metal items were found in same bag as well. If you are up to the challenge, see if you can find the light blue glass bead and abalone shell fragment in the first photo! I’ll post the answer below.

How do you identify things you don’t recognize? I’ve had a lot of help identifying these and other objects. Asking other people is a good start--other staff at the historical society (museum, archives, education, paleontology, archaeology and historic preservation staff, even custodial staff), researchers, as well as volunteers and members of the public have all helped me. Online sources can also be helpful—like research blogs, re-enactment discussions, and museum websites. And of course, it is still hard to beat a really good book when looking for information (for instance, The U.S. Army in the West, 1870-1880 by Douglas C. McChristian was very helpful with many of the objects in this post).

Bead and shell pointed out from first photo

Did you find the glass bead and piece of shell in the first photo?