Backstage Pass to North Dakota History

This blog takes you behind the scenes of the State Historical Society of North Dakota. Get a glimpse at a day-in-the-life of the staff, volunteers, and partners who make it all possible. Discover what it takes to preserve North Dakota's natural and cultural history. We encourage dialogue, questions, and comments!

Interpreting Historical Games at the Pembina State Museum

There is a lot to consider when developing a new program at a state museum. Who is it for? What is it meant to teach? How will that message be conveyed? Where will the program take place? Why is this topic important? On top of all that you must consider what resources are available and what safety guidelines need to be followed. Ultimately, what you want most is for participants to be engaged and eager to learn. In my experience participants seem the most engaged when they are having fun. And what better way to accomplish this than with games?

I am currently working on a program called “Games from Pembina’s Past,” which includes a short virtual element for classroom use and a longer element that will allow visitors to the Pembina State Museum to play various games from the different peoples that settled at one time or another in the region, including the Anishinaabe, Dakota, Métis, Scots-Irish, Icelandic, and others. The program is in the early stages of development. We’re gratefully receiving tribal input regarding the Indigenous games that are included to ensure these are portrayed appropriately and respectfully. Stewart Culin’s “Games of the North American Indians” has also been helpful to my research. The book provides key details such as the Indigenous names for games, designs for the game pieces, and rules for play.

The first game I worked on was hoop and stick. According to Culin, the Chippewa of the Turtle Mountains called it tititipanatuwanagi. It was played by two competitors, one of whom rolled a small hoop ahead of themselves while running. The two competitors would throw their sticks, which had forked ends or were decorated with feathers, at the webbing woven around the hoop. Points were awarded based on where the stick struck in the webbing, much like darts. No points were awarded if the stick passed completely through the hoop.

A young girl and boy are outdoors chasing after a hoop rolling on the ground. The girl is wearing a red dress, and the boy is wearing a red long sleeved shirt, blue jesans, and brown boots. There are other children watching in the background.

Students visiting Fort Mandan State Historic Site play a version of hoop and stick. We hope to have students playing the game here at the Pembina State Museum very soon.

The difficulty of the game can be adjusted by changing the size of the hoop. Historically, hoops have ranged from two inches up to two feet in diameter. So far, I’ve made one 12-inch hoop for the museum based on a 1903 artifact from the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians. The original is currently held by the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. In the coming weeks, I plan on making a few more hoops of varying sizes.

A brown hoop with light colored thread making a spider web like pattern in the inside with the middle being a red outlined square. To the sides of the hoop are pink sticks with a feather tied to the top. The ones on the left have a large white area towards the middle, and the ones on the right have a large black area towards the middle.

Pictured here is a hoop and stick set I made for the interpretive program using an embroidery hoop woven with artificial sinew to create the web pattern. The sticks are simple painted wooden dowels, with a feather attached to the end with more artificial sinew.

Culin groups different North American Indigenous games into broad categories, which prompted me to compare Indigenous games with games played by European settlers that fit into the same categories. I mentioned that hoop and stick shares some similarities to darts. Other comparisons can also be made. One that I make in the virtual element of the program is to compare a category of game played on an icy track that Culin “included under the general name of snow-snake” (which is also the name of the game itself) to the sport of curling.

Snow snake was played by almost every tribe in the colder climates of North America. The game was played with long, slender pieces of wood carved with heads resembling snakes. Another similar game that Culin includes under the umbrella category of “snow-snake” is ice gliders, also called bone sliders by Culin. Ice gliders were made with animal ribs and decorated with feathers. Snow snakes and ice gliders are slid with an underhand motion along an icy track, which has been prepared beforehand. The Chippewa often built these tracks by dragging a log through the snow and sprinkling the resulting trough with water to create an icy playing surface. Points are awarded to the player whose snow snake travels the farthest in each round.

Culin classifies snow snake as part of a category of games in which game pieces are “hurled along snow or ice.” In the case of snow snake, the pieces are often similar to darts or javelins. This type of game has obvious comparisons to curling, a team game played by sliding a large stone down an icy track toward a target area. I hope to help bridge a cultural divide for students by comparing something familiar, like curling, to something that isn’t, like snow snake or the ice glider game.

A few ice gliders are sitting upright  on a brown shag rg while a coupld lay on the floor. The are all white/offwhite with multiple long feathers at the top that are stuck into a curved, rectangular white/offwhite piece at the bottom.

A set of ice gliders, or bone sliders, made by the staff of the Lewis and Clark Interpretive Center.

More familiar to many North Dakota students than curling (and immediately recognizable to the Scottish settlers who built Fort Daer in Pembina in 1812) would be field or floor hockey, also known as shinny. Shinny refers to any game of field hockey where players use curved sticks to bat a ball through goalposts. The name shinny comes from an older Scottish Gaelic word, shinty, which is a game related to hurling and is of prehistoric Celtic (Irish/Scottish) origin.

European and Indigenous field hockey are uncannily similar, which may be why the Indigenous game bares the European name in Culin’s book. The Assiniboine name for the game is tah-cap-see-chah. Shinny was a common tribal game throughout North America. During the game, a buckskin or wooden ball is batted about with curved sticks by two opposing teams. According to Culin, the buckskin ball, weighted with clay or filled with cloth scraps, is the most common ball used by Plains tribes. Players are prohibited from holding the ball but in some versions of the game rules permit the swatting or passing of the ball with the hand. The object of the game is to pass the ball through a goal, usually a pair of stakes set at either end of a flat playing field.

Currently visitors to the Pembina State Museum can play hoop and stick, the hand (or stick) game, a type of guessing game, which we purchased from Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indian artists, and double ball, another field sport like shinny which involves passing two balls bound by hide or string back and forth using sticks. Like shinny, the goal of double ball is to get the ball to a goal at either end of a playing field. We also have a few settler games available including hoop trundling, which involves rolling a hoop along with a stick. (Children would often race each other as they rolled the hoops.) Visitors can also try their hand at jacks and marbles, which though sometimes played today has waned in popularity. Research continues into what other types of games were played in the region both by Indigenous people and those of European origin. While we don’t have the facilities to include curling among our offerings, we do intend to add field hockey in the very near future.

Many blue pointed sticks with a red and black band on each sit next to a carrying bag that is yellow, green, red, and white with gray separating the triangular colors. There are also four smaller sticks that are light tan in color with two of them having a black band across the middle. The carrying case for those is brown with tan on the sides.

This handcrafted stick game set came from the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians and is available for visitors to play at the Pembina State Museum. In this guessing game, one team of players hides both black and white pieces in their hands. The other team must guess which hands hold the black pieces. Score is kept by passing sticks between the teams until one team wins all the sticks.

While many of the European games like curling, field hockey, and darts are still played today, their Indigenous counterparts have been mostly forgotten over the past centuries as tribes were expected to adapt to Western culture. But there are many efforts to revive these games. One example is the Ojibwe Winter Games held annually since 2012 at Camp Nawakwa near Lac du Flambeau in Wisconsin. The games were started to educate students about the history of Native sports. Snow snake, hoop and stick, atlatl throwing, and many more Indigenous sports are played by school students during these winter games. In some small way, I, too, hope to spark interest in Indigenous games at Pembina State Museum through the development of our new program. After all, sports and games are universal pastimes that unite people around the world.

How I became the ND Heritage Center’s “Lucky Man”

Submitted by Tom Chase on Tue, 03/15/2022 - 10:00

The year 2015 was career changing for me. My wife spotted a want ad for a person needed to work weekends at the visitor information desk of the North Dakota Heritage Center & State Museum. As a native North Dakotan, I thought a job at the state’s primary museum sounded appealing and applied. It wasn’t long before I was invited for an interview and met with Beth Campbell, visitor services coordinator, and then-Event Coordinator Toni Reinbold. After the required interview questions, we had a nice get-to-know-you chat. I liked them and the place right away.

A gentleman with a short, white beard is wearing tan suit pants, vest, hat, and long overcoat, white button up shirt, orange bowtie, and old driving goggles on his hat. He is standing indoors next to a very old automobile that is on exhibit behind stanchions.

Who wouldn’t love a job where you get to wear snazzy threads like these to work?

A couple weeks later I started the new job. Any free time at work I spent going through the galleries, trying to learn as much as I could to help our guests. One of the things I was excited about was meeting people from all walks of life as well as from different parts of the country and world. One minute I would be talking with a family from Washburn, then a couple of minutes later I’d be chatting with a family from China. I realized I was learning just as much as I was sharing. Right when you think you know a subject, you meet a visitor with a whole different perspective that you hadn’t considered.

At first, Saturdays and Sundays I was behind the information desk from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. This was a nice change from my weekday work. I did this for about two years, getting to know my fellow agency employees, including the security officers who one day told me they were looking for someone to work in the control room during the weekend overnight shift. I’m motivated by “fun,” and this sounded like it fit the bill!

Only a short time later I was in the “cage,” one of the affectionate terms used to refer to the control room. Besides watching the ND Heritage Center & State Museum, I also kept an eye on historic sites around the state.

A room is shown with many monitors stacked high on stands.

One of the places I’ve worked in the agency is the security control room or “cage,” as it is affectionately known.

Soon I was working both behind the desk and in the control room. I would come in Friday at 10:30 p.m. and work until 6:30 a.m. on Saturday. After a quick nap at home, I’d be back a few hours later at the desk from 10 a.m. until 5 p.m. Then it was hi-ho and off to the control room from 10:30 p.m. Saturday evening to 6:30 a.m. Sunday, followed by more desk time from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Now those were whirlwind weekends!

I enjoyed the work, and I was learning about the agency from the inside out. When an alarm would ring at one of our statewide historic sites, I would call the site manager to check out the issue and found it exciting to be helping protect all of our museums and historic sites from my chair in a Bismarck control room. You might even say (tongue firmly in cheek) that I was the North Dakota version of Agatha Christie’s famous Belgian detective Hercule Poirot! Ha. But I digress.

Though I loved the work, my old man body could not maintain that pace more than a year. As chance would have it, around that time, Erik Holland, our curator of education, was looking for a State Museum gallery guide. I inquired about the position and was hired.

The gallery guide position is my main job at the moment, but I still help at the visitor information desk during the week as needed. For the past two years as part of my work I’ve been delivering pop-up history programs to visitors—researching and delivering short talks on topics related to the exhibits at the ND Heritage Center & State Museum. My programs aim to give visitors a peek into different eras or historical events.

An older gentleman wearing black pants and button up shirt with a gray vest and dark rimmed glasses stands next to an orange and yellow pull-up banner that reads Pop Up History: free 10-15 minute program.

As a Grand Forks native, I enjoy talking about the Nickel Trophy and its relationship to the historical rivalry between the University of North Dakota and North Dakota State University football teams.

Recently I’ve added yet another aspect to my job. Last year we opened our newest exhibition in the Governors Gallery, Fashion & Function: North Dakota Style. After seeing the wonderful displays, I thought to myself, “Wouldn’t it be fun to have a live model walking the galleries in different period costumes?” I mentioned this to Erik, and he looked at me and said, “Hmm, who can we get to do that?” Turns out it was me. Soon after, we got in contact with local costumer Michele Renner to dress me in historically correct outfits.

An older gentleman is standing in front of a clothing exhibit wearing a straw hat with red ribbon around it, royal blue button up shirt with white cuffs and collar, black bowtie, black suspenders, white pants, and white and black shoes. He also has a white and blue pinstripe jacket over his shoulder.

Looking like I just stepped out of a bandbox in the Fashion & Function: North Dakota Style exhibition at the State Museum.

Within a couple months, some pretty impressive attire began to arrive. One of the first outfits depicted a gentleman from around 1804, about the time Lewis and Clark were headed this way on their famous expedition.

Other period clothing pieces I’ve had the pleasure of “modeling” have included a Hudson’s Bay capote coat—something a hunter/trapper would have worn in the 1800s, an early 1900s motoring outfit, and a 1950s suit. But hands down my favorites are from the 1970s. You haven’t lived until you’ve seen me in a baby blue leisure suit!

I invite you to come check out my different outfits. Swing by the State Museum on Tuesdays and Thursdays from about 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. when I appear in costume. I get a kick out of visitors’ reactions. Their responses sometimes include a double take but always feature a lot of really good questions.

An older gentleman is standing in front of a Miss America exhibit with Fashion & Function North Dakota Style green and pink neon sign above it. He is wearing denim colored pants and button up jacket over a tan shirt, white shoes, and aviator type sunglasses.

For a groovy time, come on over to the State Museum and say hello.

In the 1970s, the rock band Emerson, Lake & Palmer had a super hit called “Lucky Man.” The song resonates since I feel it could have been written about me. I’m that lucky man to be able to do this work.

Next time you are at the ND Heritage Center, stop and say “hi.” I won’t sing, but we can take a look at some fascinating exhibits that tell the story of our great state.